Raymond VI of Toulouse (descendant of Raymond IV of Toulouse, a leader of the First Crusade) refuses to assist in the suppression of the Cathars in southern France.
Raymond objects to waging war against his own people, especially for the purpose of suppressing beliefs which have become widespread and deeply ingrained. As a result, he is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. The pope next calls on the French king, Philippe II, to help suppress the Cathars and he also refuses — yet he isn't excommunicated.
Raymond VI of Toulouse will meet with papal legate Pierre de Castelnau in January 1208, but the meeting will not go well. Because Castelnau is murdered the next day, Pope Innocent III calls for a Crusade against all the heretics in the Languedoc region of southern France.