Judge J. Gilbert Pendergast of the Maryland state court listens to arguments in the lawsuit filed by Madalyn Murray (later O'Hair) against the Baltimore public schools over the daily prayers held every morning.
He will deny her writ, arguing that she had not shown a good "cause of action" and, furthermore, no one had "spelled out any violation" of William Murray's constitutional rights.
"It is abundantly clear that the petitioner's real objective is to drive every concept of religion out of the public school system.
If God were removed from the classroom, there would remain only atheism [secular humanism: a religion]. The word is derived from the Greek atheos, meaning 'without a God.' Thus the beliefs of virtually all pupils would be subordinated to those of Madalyn Murray.
It is even possible that United States currency would not be accepted in school cafeterias because every coin contains the familiar inscription, In God We Trust."