Ninety-six senators and congressmen from southern states sign a manifesto entitled "Declaration of Constitutional Principles." This is one-fifth of the entire Congress and all signers come from the former Confederacy.
Also known as the Southern Manifesto, it promises to use all legal means possible in order to resist and reverse the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) which outlawed racial segregation in public schools.
From the manifesto:
"We regard the decisions of the Supreme Court in the school cases as a clear abuse of judicial power. It climaxes a trend in the Federal Judiciary undertaking to legislate, in derogation of the authority of Congress, and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the States and the people. ...
This unwarranted exercise of power by the Court, contrary to the Constitution, is creating chaos and confusion in the States principally affected. It is destroying the amicable relations between the white and Negro races that have been created through 90 years of patient effort by the good people of both races. It has planted hatred and suspicion where there has been heretofore friendship and understanding.
Without regard to the consent of the governed, outside mediators are threatening immediate and revolutionary changes in our public schools systems. If done, this is certain to destroy the system of public education in some of the States. ...
We pledge ourselves to use all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which is contrary to the Constitution and to prevent the use of force in its implementation."