A draft of the fourth book of Friedrich Nietzsche's The Gay Science (Die fröhliche Wissenschaft) is completed. The title Die fröhliche Wissenschaft is an allusion to the birth of modern European poetry in 13th century Provence, just before the Cathar Crusade.
Friedrich Nietzsche's The Gay Sciencecontains a couple of famous passages which many people have heard of, even if they aren't otherwise familiar with Nietzsche's philosophy. One is first example of saying that God is dead:
"After Buddha was dead, people showed his shadow for centuries afterwards in a cave,—an immense frightful shadow. God is dead: but as the human race is constituted, there will perhaps be caves for millenniums yet, in which people will show his shadow.—And we—we have still to overcome his shadow!"
In The Gay ScienceNietzsche also wrote his first reference the idea of eternal recurrence:
"What if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it, you will have to live once more and innumerable times more' ...
Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: 'You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine.' "