Rosa Luxemburg is born to a Jewish family in Russia. A Marxist philosopher, teacher, and activist, Rosa Luxemburg will become a naturalized German citizen in 1898 and assumes an important role in the development of German socialism.
Her consistent goal is the liberation of everyone from the chains of oppressive, authoritarian powers — even including communist leaders, when they govern in an authoritarian manner.
Commenting on the Russian Revolution, Rosa Luxemburg writes:
"Freedom only for the supporters of the government, only for the members of a party – however numerous they may be – is no freedom at all. Freedom is always the freedom of the dissenter.
Not because of the fanaticism of "justice", but rather because all that is instructive, wholesome, and purifying in political freedom depends on this essential characteristic, and its effects cease to work when "freedom" becomes a privilege."
Rosa Luxemburg will be murdered by Hermann Wilhelm Souchon, a veteran of World War I and member of the fascist Freikorps. Souchon survives World War II and is never prosecuted for his crimes.