Jean Calas dies while being tortured on the wheel in Toulouse, France. A Protestant Huguenot, Jean Calas had been convicted of murdering one of his sons after he told his parents that he intended to convert to Catholicism. There was no real evidence for the accusations and it appears that Jean Calas was only convicted and executed because of fanatical anti-Protestantism among French Catholics.
Voltaire will be informed about the case he will use it to illustrate the need for greater religious tolerance in France as well as legal reforms to protect accused criminals. Voltaire will be successful, too, because Jean Calas will be exonerated in exactly three years.