Harun al-Rashid (Aaron the Upright, Aaron the Just), fifth caliph of the Abbasid Empire from 786 to 809, dies in Iran at the age of 44. Al-Rashid's reign was a time of great cultural, scientific, artistic, and religious expansion for the Abbasid Empire. It is during his reign that the book One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) is supposed to take place.
Unfortunately, al-Rashid's reign is also a time when the end of the Abbasid Empire starts to take shape. There are revolts in Egypt, Yemen, and elsewhere. Sympathizers of the Umayyads, the predecessors of the Abbasids, continue to cause problems in places like Syria.