Russian nihilist philosopher Michail Bakunin dies in Bern, Switzerland. A Russian revolutionary and anarchist, his posthumously published book Dieu et l'état (God and the State, 1882) will remain popular in anarchist circles for more than a century.
Bakunin will start out as a military officer but leaves that behind to study abroad, where he actively supports and participates in the 1848 revolution in Germany.
He will be arrested and condemned to death, but Bakunin will be turned over to the Russians, who imprison him in Siberia. He manages to escape to England where he spends the rest of his life promoting his brand of anarchist ideas.
Michail Bakunin participates in the First International with Marx, but while he agrees with Marx's analysis of class and economics, he considers the man "arrogant" and rejects his more authoritarian ideas. Because the two men disagree so much on both means and goals, the First International disintegrates, resulting in the expulsion of Bakunin and his fellow anarchists.
This leads to the development of two groups: "anti-authoritarian" anarchists who promote revolution, the organization of workers, and the abolition of the state; then the "social democratic" Marxists who promote the seizure of political power by the working class.
Bakunin warns about the dangers inherent in the latter tactic:
"If you took the most ardent revolutionary, vested him in absolute power, within a year he would be worse than the Tsar himself."