Death of Tenth Muslim Caliph, Hishan ibn 'Abd al-Malik Hot

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Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik, the tenth Muslim caliph, dies of diphtheria at the age of 52. He reigned for 20 years, a fairly long time which gave him many opportunities to solidify the rule of the Umayyad dynasty. The Abbasids, rivals of the Umayyad family, grew in strength but were not yet powerful enough to challenge the Umayyads directly.

Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik was caliph when Abd ar Rahman ibn Abdallah, governor of Spain, made the push into France. He managed to push into the Loire valley, but Charles Martel stopped him at the Battle of Tours where the Arab Muslim forces suffered a massive defeat and ending their efforts to conquer Europe from the West.

Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik also sent forces against European Christendom in the East, attacking the Byzantines multiple times with some success.

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