Friedrich Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil (Jenseits von Gut und Böse) is first published. It is subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft).
In this book, Nietzsche accuses other philosophers of blindly accepting the premises of Christianity and Judaism when studying morality. Thus "beyond good and evil" means going beyond the assumptions about the nature of good and evil which have predicated most moral thinking in European philosophy.
What Nietzsche wants is a "revaluation of all values" or a "transvaluation of all values" (German: Umwertung aller Werte). He subjects traditional Christian morality to a destructive critique so that something new can be built up in its place.