Argued: Minersville School District v. Gobitis — The U.S. Supreme Court rules in an 8-1 decision that a school district's interest in creating national unity is sufficient reason to allow them to require students to salute the flag.
Justice Frankfurter writes in the majority opinion:
"National unity is the basis of national security. ...The ultimate foundation of a free society is the binding tie of cohesive sentiment. ...'We live by these symbols.' The flag is a symbol of our national unity, transcending all internal differences, however large, within the framework of the Constitution."
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