Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid is born. A founder of the common-sense school of philosophy, also known as the Scottish school or even the Scottish School of Common Sense, Thomas Reid will have great influence both in Great Britain and in America during the 19th century.
According to Reid, common sense should be the foundation of all philosophical inquiry. What he and others mean by "common sense" is the self-evident knowledge we are able to acquire through the direct experience of objects in the physical world (real objects, not copies or illusions). This is the epistemological idea of direct realism or common sense realism.
Thomas Reid will disagree strongly with the idealistic epistemological theories advocated by philosophers like John Locke and Descartes.