Thomas Hobbes is born in London (prematurely, supposedly because his mother was frightened by news of the approach of the Spanish Armada).
Thomas Hobbes will be best known for his book Leviathan, a pessimistic perspective on human nature. Hobbes will argue that the natural state of human affairs is one of constant struggle and violence — something which only a strong government is able to overcome.
Thus, he argues that obedience even to an arbitrary and unpleasant government is necessary to avoid the far greater evils of chaos and anarchy — the war of "every man against every man" which exists in nature without the state. Also as a result, his description of the proper functions of the state are based on how it can achieve those goals.
Thomas Hobbes also becomes well known for the fact that he bases his analysis of human nature on purely materialistic premises, refusing to resort to any divine agency in order to explain why humans act the way they do. According to Hobbes, "the Universe, that is the whole mass of things that are, is corporeal, that is to say body." The whole universe is treated by him as a great machine and he does not feel the need to assume the existence of any "ghost in the machine," as did Descartes. He thus argues for a form of determinism in human conduct, although he accepts a form of compatibilism between deterministic nature and human free will.